(These are the notes for a presentation given on behalf of the Forum for Youth Participation & Democracy, at the Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge, 1 Feb 2012)
What is Public Policy?
Public policy is why democratic control over state power is vital. A public policy is put in place in the name of our govt acting on our behalf and is binding on everyone. When people say “I can do this, it’s not against the law”, that presumes permission from public policy, a permission which could be withdrawn.
Public policy can take many forms:
• Law: restriction, duty, permission
• Organisation: structural changes, overseeing arrangements
• Opinion leadership: encouragement, admonition, criticism
• Partnership: collaboration, sharing of personnel, information, joint declarations
• Finance: tax, funding support, credits, subsidies, benefits
Who actually shapes Public Policy?
• Secretary of State, Ministers
• Special Advisers
• Policy Officials
• PM and Cabinet Colleagues
• External Experts
• Commentators (Party Political and Non-Political)
• Stakeholders (those who can speak for those most likely to be affected)
How does the Policy Development Process work?
The generic process:
Minister’s request for action -> Policy Lead (Divisional Head/Deputy Director or Team/Branch Leader) -> Submission to Minister -> Minister’s response -> consultation -> Submission to Minister -> Ministerial approval -> implementation
Examples of 5 ways to get from an idea to a policy:
• Manifesto Commitment: the value of getting a specific policy proposal into a party’s manifesto commitment. But even the simplest of commitment could have complex implications in being translated into a viable policy. Examples: Community Call for Action; Planning Circulars.
• Legislate: A Bill or just a clause (scoping); Legal dimension (parliamentary counsel); New (Economic) Burden (assessment and budget); regulatory impact assessment; debates and amendments. Example: Duty to Promote Democracy.
• White Paper: useful to announce a set of related policies, pointing to what will be legislated, or what will be reviewed, also to signal areas where more initiatives may be developed.
o Minister-led: Example – Correctional Services Standards Board (chaired by Minister, Hilary Benn), restructuring of prison and probation services; guidelines on sentencing.
o Commission with an Independent Chair and members appointed: Example – Councillors Commission (chaired by Jane Roberts), drawing attention to under-representation of women, minority groups and young people; different electoral approaches; duty to promote democracy.
o Informal Review with an external expert invited to lead: Example – Quirk Review on Asset Transfer (Chaired by Barry Quirk, then Chief Executive of London Borough of Lewisham), guidelines; support programme via the Development Trust Association; asset lock approach to risk management.
o Crime Reduction funding: bring different pots of money and different departmental strings into a single fund, AND divide it for the regions with each regional office developing with its local partners how best to allocate the money.
o Promotion of Participatory Budgeting: a promotional strategy; support independent Participatory Budgeting Unit to run projects.
o The Guide Neighbourhoods Programme: funding for the Guide areas, national sharing of learning.
o Funding for Gypsies & Travellers accommodation sites: was cut from £30m for one year to zero; but then business case made, support from Ministers secured, and back to £60m over 4 years. Limiting the cut to a vital budget to no more than halving it.
The Prospect of Your Voice Heard
How to get your voice heard:
• Party political contacts/networking
• Marketing your expertise nationally
• Cultivating working relationship with policy leads
• Organising yourself and others with shared concerns into a group with high visibility